[Home ] [Archive]    
:: Main About journal Editorial Board Current Issue Archive Submit an article Site Map Contact ::
:: Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2019) ::
Int J Med Invest 2019, 8(4): 1-8 Back to browse issues page
From Epsom Salt to a Beneficial Mineral ; Magnesium
Mehri Aliasgharpour *
Iran Ministry of Health & Medical Education, Reference Health Laboratory, Faculty member of Biochemistry Laboratory.
Abstract:   (1455 Views)
Introduction: One of the most popular medical drugs with  healing  ability is Epsom salt  that is  hydrated magnesium sulphate;MgSo4.7H2o.   Magnesium  is the fourth most abundant  mineral  in the body and the second intracellular cation after potassium. In minute amounts it is necessary for body’s proper metabolism  and function. Magnesium homeostasis in the body is maintained by a delicate interplay among intestinal absorption, skeletal resorption, renal reabsorption and urinary excretion. At cellular level magnesium is a cofactor as well as an activator   in almost all enzymatic systems that regulates diverse biochemical reactions in the body. In addition, magnesium is essential for  the  conversion of vitamin D  into its active form  which in turn activated vitamin D can increase intestinal absorption of magnesium  and calcium influencing the growth and maintenance of bones. Serum magnesium concentration estimation is a poor predictor of intracellular magnesium content and may not accurately reflect the status of body’s total magnesium content. The present article will review  magnesium deficiency  and its  role in   vitamin D activations.
Methods: An integrated review format was chosen for present article and many medical and scientific literature on magnesium and its essential role in health and interaction/s with vitamin D were reviewed.
Findings: Results indicated that chronic magnesium deficiency   is common among the general population  as well as in the hospitalized patients. It may induce a wide range of clinical complications. Investigations   have  indicated that the activities of three major vitamin D converting enzymes and vitamin D binding proteins are magnesium dependent. Furthermore, magnesium deficiency leads to reduced 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D and impaired parathyroid response.  In general, the effectiveness of vitamin D is significantly reduced when magnesium homeostasis in the body is not maintained.
Conclusion: It is concluded that chronic magnesium deficiency should always be considered in different clinical complications. Taking magnesium supplementations could be beneficial to prevent recurrence of  the diseases.  Moreover, the general population should be encouraged  to consume magnesium-containing foods to reduce disease burden.   Further investigations are necessary in regard to  vitamin D and magnesium interaction/s. They may include observations  to determine the adequate  magnesium dose  as well as  studies on the  more effective type of magnesium supplementation for vitamin D processing.
Keywords: Epsom salt, Chronic magnesium deficiency, Vitamin D, Magnesium supplementation
Full-Text [PDF 341 kb]   (199 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Review | Subject: General
1. 1. Ismail AAA , Ismail NA. Magnesium: A mineral essential for health yet generally underestimated or even ignored. J Nutr Food Sci. 2016; 6:4. 2. Jiang L, He P, Chen J. et al. Magnesium levels in drinking water and coronary heart disease mortality risk: a meta-analysis. Nutrients. 2016;8(1). 3. Institute of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D and fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2010. 4. Jahnen-Dechent J, Ketteler M. Magnesium basics. Clin Kidney J. 2012; 5: i3–i14. 5. Swaminathan, R. Magnesium metabolism and its disorders. Clin Biochem Rev. 2003; 24: 47–66. 6. Ismail AAA. Ismail AA. Ismail Y. Chronic magnesium deficiency and human disease; time for reappraisal? QJM: an inter J Med. 2017;1-5.har 7. Faheemuddin A . Abdul M . Magnesium: The forgotten electrolyte—A review on hypomagnesemia. Med Sci. 2019; 7(4): 56. 8. Ismail Y, Ismail AA. The underestimated problem of using serum magnesium measurements to exclude magnesium deficiency in adults; a health warning is needed for “normal” results. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2010; 48: 323–327. 9. Seo JW, Park TJ. Magnesium metabolism. Electrolyte Blood Press. 2008;6(2):86-95. 10. Romani AM. Cellular magnesium homeostasis. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2011; 512:1-23. 11. Elin RJ. Assessment of magnesium status for diagnosis and therapy. Magnes Res. 2010;23(4):S194-S198. 12. Ismail AAA, Ismail AA, Ismail Y. Clinical assessment of magnesium status in the adult: an overview. In: Watson RR. Preedy V. Zibadi S. eds. Magnesium in Human Health and Disease. New York, Humana Press, Springer Science. USA. 2013;3–34. 13.Beggs MR, Appel I, Svenningsen P, Skjodt K, Alexander RT, Dimke H. Expression of transcellular and paracellular calcium and magnesium transport proteins in renal and intestinal epithelia during lactation. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2017;313(3):F629-F640. 14. de Baaij, JH, Hoenderop, JG, Bindels RJ. Regulation of magnesium balance: Lessons learned from human genetic disease. Clin Kidney J. 2012; 5: i15–i24. 15.Vierling W, Liebscher DH, Micke O, Von Ehrlich B, Kisters K. Magnesium deficiency and therapy in cardiac arrhythmias: Recommendations of the German society for magnesium research. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2013; 138: 1165–1171. 16. Castiglioni S, Cazzaniga A, Albisetti W, Maier JA. Magnesium and osteoporosis: Current state of knowledge and future research directions. Nutrients .2013; 5: 3022–3033. 17. Reddy P, Edwards LR. Magnesium Supplementation in Vitamin D Deficiency. Am J Ther. 2019 ;26(1):e124-e132. 18. Chen HY, Cheng FC, Pan HC, et al. Magnesium enhances exercise performance via increasing glucose availability in the blood, muscle, and brain during exercise. PLoS One. 2014;9(1):e85486. 19.Gao Y, Yang W. Capture of a third Mg(2)(+) is essential for catalyzing DNA synthesis. Science. 2016; 352(6291):1334-7. 20.Petrovic J, Stanic D, Dmitrasinovic G, et al. Magnesium supplementation diminishes peripheral blood lymphocyte DNA oxidative damage in athletes and sedentary young man. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016;2016:2019643. 21. Chen Y, Gao T, Wang Y, et al. Investigating the influence of magnesium ions on p53-DNA binding using atomic force microscopy. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18(7). 22. Tokmak F, Kisters K, Hausberg M, Rump LC. Buffer function of the cell membrane for magnesium in chronic kidney disease. Trace Elem Electrol. 2008; 25: 234–235. 23. Killilea DW, Maier JA . A connection between magnesium deficiency and aging: new insights from cellular studies. Magnes Res. 2008; 21: 77-82. 24. Veronese N, Berton L, Carraro S, et al., “Effect of oral magnesium supplementation on physical performance in healthy elderly women involved in a weekly exercise program: A randomized controlled trial”. Am J Clin Nutrition. 2014;100(3): 974–981. 25. Spätling L, Classen HG, Külpmann WR, Manz F, et al. Diagnosing magnesium deficiency. Current recommendations of the society for magnesium research. Fortschr Med Orig. 2000; 118:49–53. 26. Hermes Sales C, Azevedo Nascimento D, Queiroz Medeiros AC, Costa Lima K, et al. There is chronic latent magnesium deficiency in apparently healthy university students. Nutricion Hospitalaria .2014; 30(1): 200–204. 27. Castiglioni S. Cazzaniga A. Albisetti W. Maier, JA. Magnesium and osteoporosis: Current state of knowledge and future research directions. Nutrients. 2013; 5: 3022–3033. 28. Ozsoylu S, Hanioğlu N. Serum magnesium levels in children with vitamin D deficiency rickets. Turk J Pediatr. 1977;19(3-4):89-96. 29. Brown RB, Haq A, Stanford CF, Razzaque MS. Vitamin D, phosphate, and vasculotoxicity. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2015;93(12):1077-1082. 30. Risco F, Traba ML. Possible involvement of a magnesium dependent mitochondrial alkaline phosphatase in the regulation of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1 alpha-and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-24R-hydroxylases in LLC-PK1 cells. Magnes Res. 1994;7(3-4):169-178. 31. Risco F, Traba ML. Influence of magnesium on the in vitro synthesis of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Magnes Res. 1992; 5:5–14. 32. Aliasgharpour M. Technical points in vitamin D measurement assays. Int J Med Invest .2019; 8( 2) :1-5. 33. Dusso AS. Update on the biologic role of the vitamin D endocrine system. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2014;12(2):272-277. 34. Elin RJ. “Re-evaluation of the concept of chronic, latent, magnesium deficiency”. Magnes Res.2011; 24(4): 225–227. 35. Coudray C. Rambeau M. Feillet-Coudray C. Gueux, E. et al. Study of magnesium bioavailability from ten organic and inorganic mg salts in mg-depleted rats using a stable isotope approach. Magnes Res. 2005; 18: 215–223.
Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


XML     Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Aliasgharpour M. From Epsom Salt to a Beneficial Mineral ; Magnesium. Int J Med Invest. 2019; 8 (4) :1-8
URL: http://intjmi.com/article-1-446-en.html

Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2019) Back to browse issues page
International Journal of Medical Investigation
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.05 seconds with 29 queries by YEKTAWEB 4218