:: Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2020) ::
Int J Med Invest 2020, 9(1): 1-8 Back to browse issues page
Impact Of High NaCl Concentration In Drinking Water On Health Of Different Human Organs; Review Article
Majid Zamani Beidokhti *, Daryoush Yousefi Kebria, Shima Mehrabadi
Environmental Engineering Department, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran
Abstract:   (1071 Views)
Sodium chloride (NaCl) that commonly named dietary salt is most important electrolyte in our body. NaCl has many role in health of many human organs. Normal function of CNS, cardiovascular system, kidney and other organs are dependent to NaCl concentration. NaCl concentration is controlled very conscious in blood. Any small changes in NaCl concentration in blood can cause major changes in blood volume and may lead many pathophysiology conditions like: heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, encephalopathy, high blood pressure. Due to geographical diversity, in different region, people are exposed with different range of NaCl concentration. This is a novel issue that how much of the health of people from different region is related to salt level. Because of the importance of this issue, the aim of this study is to review studies that performed about in this issue,  advantages and disadvantages of different level of NaCl in health of people from different region and in each of region which disease more common due to  impaired NaCl homeostasis.
Keywords: Nacl, Kidney, Heart, CNS, Water Drinking.
Full-Text [PDF 539 kb]   (159 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Review | Subject: General
1. 1. Beidokhti M, Naeeni S, AbdiGhahroudi M. 2019. Biosorption of Nickel (II) from aqueous solutions onto Pistachio Hull waste as a low-cost biosorbent. Civ Eng J 1. 2. Whelton AJ, Dietrich AM, Burlingame GA, Schechs M, Duncan SE. 2007. Minerals in drinking water: impacts on taste and importance to consumer health. Water Sci Technol 55:283–291. 3. Van der Aa M. 2003. Classification of mineral water types and comparison with drinking water standards. Environ Geol 44:554–563. 4. Munteanu C, Iliuta A. 2011. The role of sodium in the body. Balneo Res J 2:70–74. 5. Frohlich ED, Varagic J. 2004. The role of sodium in hypertension is more complex than simply elevating arterial pressure. Nat Rev Cardiol 1:24. 6. Hamm LL, Feng Z, Hering-Smith KS. 2010. Regulation of sodium transport by ENaC in the kidney. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 19:98. 7. Karppanen H, Mervaala E. 2006. Sodium intake and hypertension. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 49:59–75. 8. Kirabo A. 2017. A new paradigm of sodium regulation in inflammation and hypertension. Am J Physiol Integr Comp Physiol 313:R706–R710. 9. Butler M, Wallace J, Lowe M. 2002. Ground-water quality classification using GIS contouring methods for Cedar Valley, Iron County, Utah. Digit Mapp Tech 207. 10. Cuzzo B, Lappin SL. 2019. Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone, ADH)StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing. 11. Stockand JD. 2010. Vasopressin regulation of renal sodium excretion. Kidney Int 78:849–856. 12. Sanders PW. 2004. Salt intake, endothelial cell signaling, and progression of kidney disease. Hypertension 43:142–146. 13. Mohan S, Campbell NRC. 2009. Salt and high blood pressure. Clin Sci 117:1–11. 14. Gómez-Sánchez EP, Zhou M, Gomez-Sanchez CE. 1996. Mineralocorticoids, salt and high blood pressure. Steroids 61:184–188. 15. Hoy WE, Hughson MD, Bertram JF, Douglas-Denton R, Amann K. 2005. Nephron number, hypertension, renal disease, and renal failure. J Am Soc Nephrol 16:2557–2564. 16. Langley-Evans SC, Langley-Evans AJ, Marchand MC. 2003. Nutritional programming of blood pressure and renal morphology. Arch Physiol Biochem 111:8–16. 17. Palmer BF, Gates JR, Lader M. 2003. Causes and management of hyponatremia. Ann Pharmacother 37:1694–1702. 18. Qian Q. 2018. Salt, water and nephron: Mechanisms of action and link to hypertension and chronic kidney disease. Nephrology 23:44–49. 19. Ghanem M, Zeineldin M, Eissa A, El Ebissy E, Mohammed R, Abdelraof Y. 2018. The effects of saline water consumption on the ultrasonographic and histopathological appearance of the kidney and liver in Barki sheep. J Vet Med Sci 17–596. 20. Scheelbeek PFD, Chowdhury MAH, Haines A, Alam DS, Hoque MA, Butler AP, Khan AE, Mojumder SK, Blangiardo MAG, Elliott P. 2017. Drinking water salinity and raised blood pressure: evidence from a cohort study in coastal Bangladesh. Environ Health Perspect 125:57007. 21. Murray B, Eichner ER. 2004. Hyponatremia of exercise. Curr Sports Med Rep 3:117–118. 22. Chau PH, Chan KC, Woo J. 2009. Hot weather warning might help to reduce elderly mortality in Hong Kong. Int J Biometeorol 53:461. 23. Wexler RK. 2002. Evaluation and treatment of heat-related illnesses. Am Fam Physician 65:2307–2313. 24. Rakova N, Kitada K, Lerchl K, Dahlmann A, Birukov A, Daub S, Kopp C, Pedchenko T, Zhang Y, Beck L. 2017. Increased salt consumption induces body water conservation and decreases fluid intake. J Clin Invest 127:1932–1943. 25. Dwyer J. 2013. Vegeterian Diets. sic) Encycl Hum Nutr 4:316–322. 26. Mahtani KR, Heneghan C, Onakpoya I, Tierney S, Aronson JK, Roberts N, Hobbs FDR, Nunan D. 2018. Reduced Salt Intake for Heart Failure: A Systematic Review. JAMA Intern Med 178:1693–1700. 27. Kong YW, Baqar S, Jerums G, Ekinci EI. 2016. Sodium and its role in cardiovascular disease–the debate continues. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 7:164. 28. Meneton P, Jeunemaitre X, de Wardener HE, Macgregor GA. 2005. Links between dietary salt intake, renal salt handling, blood pressure, and cardiovascular diseases. Physiol Rev 85:679–715. 29. Elkinton JR, Danowski TS, Winkler AW. 1946. Hemodynamic changes in salt depletion and in dehydration. J Clin Invest 25:120–129. 30. Kurtz TW, DiCarlo SE, Pravenec M, Morris RC. 2018. The pivotal role of renal vasodysfunction in salt sensitivity and the initiation of salt-induced hypertension. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 27:83–92. 31. Hall JE, Guyton AC, Smith Jr MJ, Coleman TG. 1980. Blood pressure and renal function during chronic changes in sodium intake: role of angiotensin. Am J Physiol Physiol 239:F271–F280. 32. Drenjančević-Perić I, Jelaković B, Lombard JH, Kunert MP, Kibel A, Gros M. 2011. High-salt diet and hypertension: focus on the renin-angiotensin system. Kidney blood Press Res 34:1–11. 33. Zhu Z, Zhu S, Zhu J, van der Giet M, Tepel M. 2004. Effect of Sodium on Vasoconstriction and Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor mRNA Expression in Cold‐induced Hypertensive Rats. Clin Exp Hypertens 26:475–483. 34. Crestani S, Júnior AG, Marques MCA, Sullivan JC, Webb RC, da Silva-Santos JE. 2014. Enhanced angiotensin-converting enzyme activity and systemic reactivity to angiotensin II in normotensive rats exposed to a high-sodium diet. Vascul Pharmacol 60:67–74. 35. Forechi L, Baldo MP, de Araujo IB, Nogueira BV, Mill JG. 2015. Effects of high and low salt intake on left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction in normotensive rats. J Am Soc Hypertens 9:77–85. 36. Diringer MN. 1992. Management of sodium abnormalities in patients with CNS disease. Clin Neuropharmacol 15:427–447. 37. Kim DK, Joo KW. 2009. Hyponatremia in patients with neurologic disorders. Electrolytes Blood Press 7:51–57. 38. Farez MF, Fiol MP, Gaitán MI, Quintana FJ, Correale J. 2015. Sodium intake is associated with increased disease activity in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 86:26–31. 39. Mehrabadi S. 2019. Interaction between Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis and Multiple Sclerosis. Int J Med Investig 8:21–28. 40. Mehrabadi S, Karimiyan SM. 2018. Morphine Tolerance Effects on Neurotransmitters and Related Receptors: Definition, Overview and Update. J Pharm Res Int 1–11. 41. Zostawa J, Adamczyk J, Sowa P, Adamczyk-Sowa M. 2017. The influence of sodium on pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis. Neurol Sci 38:389–398. 42. Campese VM, Mozayeni P, Ye S, Gumbard M. 2002. High salt intake inhibits nitric oxide synthase expression and aggravates hypertension in rats with chronic renal failure. J Nephrol 15:407–413. 43. Ni Z, Vaziri ND. 2001. Effect of salt loading on nitric oxide synthase expression in normotensive rats. Am J Hypertens 14:155–163. 44. Calabrese V, Mancuso C, Calvani M, Rizzarelli E, Butterfield DA, Stella AMG. 2007. Nitric oxide in the central nervous system: neuroprotection versus neurotoxicity. Nat Rev Neurosci 8:766. 45. Strazzullo P, D’Elia L, Kandala N-B, Cappuccio FP. 2009. Salt intake, stroke, and cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis of prospective studies. Bmj 339:b4567. 46. Turlova E, Feng Z. 2013. Dietary salt intake and stroke. Acta Pharmacol Sin 34:8. 47. Perry IJ, Beevers DG. 1992. Salt intake and stroke: a possible direct effect. J Hum Hypertens 6:23–25. 48. Mehrabadi S, Motevaseli E, Sadr SS, Moradbeygi K. 2020. Hypoxic-conditioned medium from adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells improved neuroinflammation through alternation of toll like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 expression in model of Alzheimer’s disease rats. Behav Brain Res 379:112362. 49. Fyfe I. 2020. High-salt diet promotes Alzheimer disease-like changes. Nat Rev Neurol 16:2–3. 50. Mehrabadi S, Sadr SS, Hoseini M. 2019. Stem Cell Conditioned Medium as a Novel Treatment for Neuroinflamation Diseases. Int J Med Investig 8:1–12. 51. Goldstein B, Speth RC, Trivedi M. 2016. Renin–angiotensin system gene expression and neurodegenerative diseases. J Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone Syst 17:1470320316666750. 52. Faraco G, Brea D, Garcia-Bonilla L, Wang G, Racchumi G, Chang H, Buendia I, Santisteban MM, Segarra SG, Koizumi K. 2018. Dietary salt promotes neurovascular and cognitive dysfunction through a gut-initiated TH17 response. Nat Neurosci 21:240. 53. Fiocco AJ, Shatenstein B, Ferland G, Payette H, Belleville S, Kergoat M-J, Morais JA, Greenwood CE. 2012. Sodium intake and physical activity impact cognitive maintenance in older adults: the NuAge Study. Neurobiol Aging 33:829-e21.

XML     Print

Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2020) Back to browse issues page