[Home ] [Archive]    
:: Main About journal Editorial Board Current Issue Archive Submit an article Site Map Contact ::
:: Volume 8, Issue 2 (5-2019) ::
Int J Med Invest 2019, 8(2): 40-49 Back to browse issues page
Factors Affecting Glycemic Control in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus among Children in Sulaimani Governorate, Iraq
Khalid Hama Salih *
University of Sulaimani, College of medicine, Sulaimani pediatric teaching hosp.
Abstract:   (2184 Views)
commonest chronic disorder in childhood. T1DM can lead to long-term complications which can be controlled through glycemic control which is under the influence of several factors such as age, lifestyle, family structure, duration of diabetes, and so forth. In this regard, the present study was carried out in order to specify and examine effective factors in glycemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus among children in Sulaimani governorate, Iraq.
Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 104 children with T1DM were recruited and the required data on their sociodemographic characteristics and glycocyted hemoglobin (HbA1c) were collected. Afterwards, the association between different factors and glycemic control was examined through Chi-square test, Student’s t-test, ANOVA, and Fisher’s exact test using SPSS 25.0.
Results: The results of data analysis indicated that there was a significant relationship between the T1DM children’s glycemic control and their age (p=0.005), while it had no significant association with other factors including sex, celiac disease, BMI, family economic status, father education level, and mother education level (p>0.05).
Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, glycemic control was significantly affected by the children’s age. Therefore, this factorshould be paid more attention to while treating children with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Keywords: type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), glycemic control, children, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), Sulaimani
Full-Text [PDF 217 kb]   (481 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: General
1. 1. Osgood, D. W., Foster, E. M., & Courtney, M. E. (2010). Vulnerable populations and the transition to adulthood. The Future of Children / Center for the Future of Children, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, 20(1), 209-229. 2. American Diabetes Association (2009). Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes care, 32 Suppl 1(Suppl 1), S62-7. 3. Maahs, D. M., West, N. A., Lawrence, J. M., & Mayer-Davis, E. J. (2010). Epidemiology of type 1 diabetes. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, 39(3), 481-497. 4. Wills CJ, scott a, Swift PG, Davies MJ, Mackie AD, Mansell P. (2003). Retrospective review of core and outcome in young adult with type 1 diabetes. BMJ, 327: 260-261. 5. Mansour, A. (2015). Diabetes in Iraq: Facing the epidemic. A systematic review. WULFENIA, 22(3), 257-273. 6. Yazidi, M.; Chihaoui, M.; Chaker, F.; Rjeb, O. &Slimane, H. (2016). Factors predicting glycemic control in type 1 diabetic patient. Open Medicine Journal, 3: 153-158. DOI: 10.2174/1874220301603010153 7. Swift EE, Chen R, Hershberger A, Holmes CS. (2006). Demographic risk factors, mediators, and moderators in youths’ diabetes metabolic control. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 32(1):39–49. 8. Haghighatpanah, M., Nejad, A., Haghighatpanah, M., Thunga, G., &Mallayasamy, S. (2018). Factors that Correlate with Poor Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Complications. Osong public health and research perspectives, 9(4), 167-174. 9. Bergenstal RM. (2015). Glycemic variability and diabetes complications: does it matter? Simply put, there are better glycemic markers! Diabetes Care, 38:1615–21. 10.2337/dc15-0099 10. Nyström T, Holzmann MJ, Eliasson B, Kuhl J, Sartipy U. (2015). Glycemic control in type 1 diabetes and long-term risk of cardiovascular events or death after coronary artery bypass grafting. J Am CollCardiol, 66:535–43. 11. Nathan DM, Turgeon H, Regan S. (2007). Relationship between glycated haemoglobin levels and mean glucose levels over time. Diabetologica, 50:2239–44. 10.1007/s00125‐007‐0803‐0 12. Chiang JL, Kirkman MS, Laffel LM, et al. (2014). Type 1 diabetes through the life span: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care, 37:2034–54. 13. Leighton, E., Sainsbury, C. A., & Jones, G. C. (2017). A Practical Review of C-Peptide Testing in Diabetes. Diabetes therapy: research, treatment and education of diabetes and related disorders, 8(3), 475-487. 14. Helminen, O.; Aspholm, S.; Pokka, T.; Hautakangas, M.R.; Haatanen, N.; Lempainen, J.; JormaIlonen, J.; Simell, O.; Knip, M. & Veijola1, R. (2015). HbA1c predicts time to diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children at risk. Diabetes, 64: 1719–27. 15. Perlmuter, L. C., Flanagan, B. P., Shah, P. H., & Singh, S. P. (2008). Glycemic control and hypoglycemia: is the loser the winner? Diabetes care, 31(10), 2072-6. 16. Mansour AA, Al-Maliky AA, Kasem B. (2013). Determinants of loss of glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: prospective cohort study from Iraq. J Diabetes Res Clin Metab, 2:21-25. 17. Kadhim DM, Al-Kaseer EA, Al-Zubaidi MA. (2016). Glycemic control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus in post conflict Iraq: a primary report. J Fac Med Baghdad, 58: 273-275. 18. Firouzi, S., Barakatun-Nisak, M. Y., &Azmi, K. N. (2015). Nutritional status, glycemic control and its associated risk factors among a sample of type 2 diabetic individuals, a pilot study. Journal of research in medical sciences: the official journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 20(1), 40-6. 19. Kayar Y, Ilhan A, Kayar NB, Unver N, Coban G, et al. (2017). Relationship between the poor glycemic control and risk factors, life style and complications. Biomed Res. 28: 1581-1586. 20. Araujo MB, Mazza CS. (2008). Assessment of risk factors of poor metabolic control in type 1 diabetic children assisted in a public hospital in Argentina. Pediatr Diabetes, 9(5):480–7. 21. Hood KK, Peterson CM, Rohan JM, Drotar D. (2009). Association between adherence and glycemic control in pediatric type 1 diabetes: a metaanalysis. Pediatrics, 124(6):e1171–9. 22. Hadi, Z. S.; Al-Kaseer, E. A. & Al-Zubaidi, M. A. (2018). Growth of diabetic children in post conflict Baghdad, Iraq. J Fac Med Baghdad, 60(1): 69-73. 23. Setoodeh, A., Mostafavi, F., Rabbani, A., &Hedayat, T. (2011). Female sex as a risk factor for glycemic control and complications in Iranian patients with type one diabetes mellitus. Iranian journal of pediatrics, 21(3), 373-8. 24. Kadhim DM, Al-Kaseer EA, Al-Zubaidi MA. (2016). Glycemic control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus in post conflict Iraq: a primary report. J Fac Med Baghdad, 58: 273-275. 25. Szaflarska-Popławska A. (2014). Coexistence of coeliac disease and type 1 diabetes. Przegladgastroenterologiczny, 9(1), 11-7. 26. Akirov, A., &Pinhas-Hamiel, O. (2015). Co-occurrence of type 1 diabetes mellitus and celiac disease. World journal of diabetes, 6(5), 707-14. 27. Scaramuzza, A. E., Mantegazza, C., Bosetti, A., &Zuccotti, G. V. (2013). Type 1 diabetes and celiac disease: The effects of gluten free diet on metabolic control. World journal of diabetes, 4(4), 130-4. 28. Ashish, P.; Ittyachen, A. M.; Mathew, A. &Velusamy, S. (2016). Association between Body Mass Index (BMI) and Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Admitted in a Rural Teaching Hospital in the State of Kerala, India – A Pilot Study. British Journal of Medicine & Medical Research, 18(3): 1-7, Article no.BJMMR.28305 29. Vázquez, L. A., Rodríguez, Á., Salvador, J., Ascaso, J. F., Petto, H., &Reviriego, J. (2014). Relationships between obesity, glycemic control, and cardiovascular risk factors: a pooled analysis of cross-sectional data from Spanish patients with type 2 diabetes in the preinsulin stage. BMC cardiovascular disorders, 14, 153. doi:10.1186/1471-2261-14-153. 30. Al-Odayani, A.N., Alsharqi, O.Z., Ahmad, A.M.K., Khalaf Ahmad, A.M., Al-Borie, H.M., Qattan, A.M.N. (2013). Children’s glycemic control: mother’s knowledge and socioeconomic status Glob J Health Sci, 5, pp. 214-226, 10.5539/gjhs.v5n6p214 31. Majidi, S., Wadwa, R. P., Bishop, F. K., Klingensmith, G. J., Rewers, M., McFann, K., &Maahs, D. M. (2014). The effect of insurance status and parental education on glycemic control and cardiovascular disease risk profile in youth with Type 1 Diabetes. Journal of diabetes and metabolic disorders, 13, 59. doi:10.1186/2251-6581-13-59 32. Haugstvedt, A., Wentzel-Larsen, T., Rokne, B., &Graue, M. (2011). Psychosocial family factors and glycemic control among children aged 1-15 years with type 1 diabetes: a population-based survey. BMC pediatrics, 11, 118. doi:10.1186/1471-2431-11-118. 33. Fisher, E.; Lazar, L.; Shalitin, S.; Yackobovitch-Gavan, M.; de Vries, L.; Oron, T.; Tenenbaum, A.; Phillip, M. &Lebenthal, Y. (2018). “Association between Glycemic Control and Clinic Attendance in Emerging Adults with Type 1 Diabetes: A Tertiary Center Experience,” Journal of Diabetes Research, vol. 2018, Article ID 9572817, 6 pages, 2018.
Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


XML     Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Hama Salih K. Factors Affecting Glycemic Control in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus among Children in Sulaimani Governorate, Iraq. Int J Med Invest. 2019; 8 (2) :40-49
URL: http://intjmi.com/article-1-398-en.html

Volume 8, Issue 2 (5-2019) Back to browse issues page
International Journal of Medical Investigation
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.06 seconds with 31 queries by YEKTAWEB 4106