[Home ] [Archive]    
:: Main About journal Editorial Board Current Issue Archive Submit an article Site Map Contact ::
:: Volume 11, Issue 1 (3-2022) ::
Int J Med Invest 2022, 11(1): 9-18 Back to browse issues page
Diagnostic and Prognostic Blood Biomarkers in COVID-19
Asghar Elahi, Alireza Masoudi * , Haniyeh Hemmati
Department Of Laboratory Sciences, Faculty Of Allied Medical Sciences, Medical University Of Qom, Iran.
Abstract:   (501 Views)
COVID-19 outbreak prompted the development of novel diagnostic and immediate treatment procedures. Protein biomarkers are helpful in the study of COVID-19 and SARS-related illness. Proteins linked to blood coagulation (D-dimer), cell damage (lactate dehydrogenase), and the inflammatory response, such as reactive protein (C), have previously been identified as possible COVID-19 severity or mortality predictions. This study examined the applications of proteomics to Covid-19 and showed that technologies such as artificial intelligence could be helpful for research into these diseases. In addition, the SPSelectin levels and the severity of COVID-19 infections were examined in this study. In a broad sample of patients, the efficacy of regular blood counts utilized in the diagnostic and prognostic value of Covid-19 and their independent biomarkers were retrospectively examined. This condition was diagnosed using low lymphocytes (LYM), white blood cells (WBC), CRP, and high ferritin levels. The results indicated that vascular inflammation and thrombosis appear to be critical drivers of poor clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients. A significant decrease in the percentage of blood vessels with a cross-sectional area of 5.25-5 mm2 (BV5) on computed tomography (CT) of the chest in COVID-19 patients was expected to predict poor clinical outcomes in this investigation as a hypothesis.
 
Keywords: COVID-19, Biomarker, Prognostic, Diagnostic
Full-Text [PDF 190 kb]   (124 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Review | Subject: General
References
1. 1. WHO, Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard, Available at: https://covid19.who.int/. 2. J.W.M. Chan, C.K. Ng, Y.H. Chan, T.Y.W. Mok, S. Lee, S.Y.Y. Chu, et al., Short term outcome and risk factors for adverse clinical outcomes in adults with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Thorax 58 (8) (2003 Aug) 686–689. 3. J. Bedford, D. Enria, J. Giesecke, et al., COVID-19: towards controlling of a pandemic, Lancet 395 (2020) 1015–1018, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736 (20)30673-5. 4. Yilmaz, R. Sabirli, M. Seyit, et al., Association between laboratory parameters and CT severity in patients infected with COVID-19: a retrospective, observational study, Am. J. Emerg. Med. 42 (2021) 110–114. 5. N. García-Tard´on, A.P. Abbes, A. Gerrits, R.J. Slingerland, G. den Besten, Laboratory parameters as predictors of mortality in COVID-19 patients on hospital admission, J Lab Med 44 (2020) 357–359. 6. J.D. Pierce, S. McCabe, N. White, R.L. Clancy, Biomarkers: an important clinical assessment tool, Am. J. Nurs. 112 (9) (2012) 52–58 Sep. 7. J. Gong, H. Dong, S.Q. Xia, Y.Z. Huang, D. Wang, Y. Zhao, et al., Correlation Analysis Between Disease Severity and Inflammation-related Parameters in Patients with COVID-19 Pneumonia. medRxiv, (2020 Feb 27) 2020.02.25.20025643. 8. Pasquali, E. Trabetti, M.G. Romanelli, et al., Detection of a large deletion in the P-selectin (SELP) gene, Mol. Cell. Probes 24 (2010) 161–165. 9. S. Sun, X. Cai, H. Wang, et al., Abnormalities of peripheral blood system in patients with COVID-19 in Wenzhou, China, Clin. Chim. Acta 507 (2020) 174–180, https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2020.04.024. 10. T.N. Mayadas, R.C. Johnson, H. Rayburn, R.O. Hynes, D.D. Wagner, Leukocyte rolling and extravasation are severely compromised in P selectin-deficient mice, Cell 74 (1993) 541–554. 11. Tuaillon, E.; Bollore, K.; Pisoni, A.; Debiesse, S.; Renault, C.;Marie, S.; Groc, S.; Niels, C.; Pansu, N.; Dupuy, A. M.; Morquin, D.;Foulongne, V.; Bourdin, A.; Le Moing, V.; Van de Perre, P. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using commercial assays and seroconversion patterns in hospitalized patients. J. Infect. 2020, DOI: 10.1016/j.jinf.2020.05.077. 12. T.N. Mayadas, R.C. Johnson, H. Rayburn, R.O. Hynes, D.D. Wagner, Leukocyte rolling and extravasation are severely compromised in P selectin-deficient mice, Cell 74 (1993) 541–554. 13. C. Venter, J.A. Bezuidenhout, G.J. Laubscher, et al., Erythrocyte, platelet, serum ferritin, and P-selectin pathophysiology implicated in severe hypercoagulation and vascular complications in COVID-19, Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21 (2020) 8234. Nov 3. 14. G. Goshua, A.B. Pine, M.L. Meizlish, et al., Endotheliopathy in COVID-19- associated coagulopathy: evidencefrom a Single-Centre, cross-sectional study, Lancet Haematol 7 (2020) e575–e582. 15. M.K. Bohn, G. Lippi, A. Horvath, et al., Molecular, serological, and biochemical diagnosis and monitoring of COVID-19: IFCC taskforce evaluation of the latest evidence, Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. 58 (2020) 1037–1052, https://doi.org/10.1515/ cclm-2020-0722. 16. Y.C. Liao, W.G. Liang, F.W. Chen, et al., IL-19 induces production of IL-6 and TNF-alpha and results in cell apoptosis through TNF-alpha, J. Immunol. 169 (2002) 4288–4297, https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.169.8.4288. 17. J. Gong, H. Dong, S.Q. Xia, Y.Z. Huang, D. Wang, Y. Zhao, et al., Correlation Analysis Between Disease Severity and Inflammation-related Parameters in Patients with COVID-19 Pneumonia. medRxiv, (2020 Feb 27) 2020.02.25.20025643. 18. W. Ji, G. Bishnu, Z. Cai, X. Shen, Analysis Clinical Features of COVID-19 Infection in Secondary Epidemic Area and Report Potential Biomarkers in Evaluation. medRxiv, (2020 Mar 13) 2020.03.10.20033613. 19. C. Tan, Y. Huang, F. Shi, K. Tan, Q. Ma, Y. Chen, et al., C-reactive protein correlates with computed tomographic findings and predicts severe COVID-19 early, J. Med. Virol. (2020 Apr 13). 20. S. Mahajan, C.E. Decker, Z. Yang, D. Veis, E.D. Mellins, R. Faccio, Plcγ2/Tmem178 dependent pathway in myeloid cells modulates the pathogenesis of cytokine storm syndrome, J. Autoimmun. 100 (2019) 62–74 Jun. 21. N. Chen, M. Zhou, X. Dong, J. Qu, F. Gong, Y. Han, et al., Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study, Lancet 395 (10223) (2020) 507–513. 22. E.A. Coomes, H. Haghbayan, Interleukin-6 in COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, medRxiv, 2020 Apr 3 2020.03.30.20048058. 23. Yang J, Zhao X, Liu X, Sun W, Zhou L, Wang Y, et al. Clinical characteristics and eosinophils in young SARS-CoV-2-positive chinese travelers returning to shanghai. Front Public Health. (2020) 8:368. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.202000368 24. Yang J, Zhao X, Liu X, Sun W, Zhou L, Wang Y, et al. Clinical characteristics and eosinophils in young SARS-CoV-2-positive chinese travelers returning to shanghai. Front Public Health. (2020) 8:368. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.202000368 25. Urra JM, Cabrera CM, Porras L, Ródenas I. Selective CD8 cell reduction by SARS-CoV-2 is associated with a worse prognosis and systemic inflammation in COVID-19 patients. Clin Immunol. (2020) 217:108486. doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2020108486 26. Dosanjh A. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin and respiratory tract infection and inflammation: implications for COVID 19 management. J Interferon Cytokine Res. (2020) 40:443–5. doi: 10.1089/jir.20200066 27. Clinical findings of 35 cases with novel coronavirus pneumonia outside of Wuhan, (cited 2020 Apr 29); Available from, 2020 Apr 17. https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-22554/v1. 28. Bao C, Tao X, Cui W, Yi B, Pan T, Young KH, et al. SARS-CoV-2 induced thrombocytopenia as an important biomarker significantly correlated with abnormal coagulation function, increased intravascular blood clot risk and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Exp Hematol Oncol. (2020) 9:16. doi: 10.1186/s40164-020-00172-4 29. Hou H, Zhang B, Huang H, Luo Y, Wu S, Tang G, et al. Using IL-2R/lymphocytes for predicting the clinical progression of patients with COVID-19. Clin Exp Immunol. (2020) 201:76–84. doi: 10.1111/cei13450 30. Lagunas-Rangel FA. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and lymphocyte-to-C-reactive protein ratio in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a meta-analysis. J Med Virol. (2020) 92:1733–4. doi: 10.1002/jmv25819 31. H. Zhou, Z. Zhang, H. Fan, J. Li, M. Li, Y. Dong, et al., Urinalysis, but Not Blood Biochemistry, Detects the Early Renal-impairment in Patients With COVID-19. medRxiv, (2020 Apr 6) 2020.04.03.20051722. 32. Lippi G, Plebani M. Procalcitonin in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A meta-analysis. Clin Chim Acta. (2020) 505:190–1. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2020.03004 33. Y. Nguyen, F. Corre, V. Honsel, et al., Applicability of the CURB-65 pneumonia severity score for outpatient treatment of COVID-19, J. Inf. Secur. 81 (2020) e96–e98 34. Liu T, Zhang J, Yang Y, Ma H, Li Z, Zhang J, et al. The role of interleukin-6 in monitoring severe case of coronavirus disease 2019. EMBO Mol Med. (2020) 12: e12421. doi: 10.15252/emmm202012421 35. Kox M, Waalders NJB, Kooistra EJ, Gerretsen J, Pickkers P. Cytokine levels in critically Ill patients with COVID-19 and other conditions. JAMA. (2020) 324:1565–7. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.17052 36. Bellmann-Weiler R, Lanser L, Barket R, Rangger L, Schapfl A, Schaber M, et al. Prevalence and predictive value of anemia and dysregulated iron homeostasis in patients with COVID-19 Infection. J Clin Med. (2020) 9: E2429. doi: 10.3390/jcm9082429 37. Lin Z, Long F, Yang Y, Chen X, Xu L, Yang M. Serum ferritin as an independent risk factor for severity in COVID-19 patients. J Infect. (2020) 81:647–79. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2020.06.053 38. Huang I, Pranata R, Lim MA, Oehadian A, Alisjahbana B. C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, D-dimer, and ferritin in severe coronavirus disease-2019: a meta-analysis. Ther Adv Respir Dis. (2020) 14:1753466620937175. doi: 10.1177/1753466620937175 39. Mitchell WB. Thromboinflammation in COVID-19 acute lung injury. Paediatr Respir Rev. (2020) 35:20–4. doi: 10.1016/j.prrv.2020.06.004 40. Zhang L, Yan X, Fan Q, Liu H, Liu X, Liu Z, et al. D-dimer levels on admission to predict in-hospital mortality in patients with Covid-19. J Thromb Haemost. (2020) 18:1324–9. doi: 10.1111/jth.14859 41. Yao Y, Cao J, Wang Q, Shi Q, Liu K, Luo Z, et al. D-dimer as a biomarker for disease severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients: a case control study. J Intensive Care. (2020) 8:49. doi: 10.1186/s40560-020-00466-42. Qin JJ, Cheng X, Zhou F, Lei F, Akolkar G, Cai J, et al. Redefining cardiac biomarkers in predicting mortality of inpatients with COVID-19. Hypertension. (2020) 76:1104–12. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.12015528 43. Mahajan K, Chand N.egi P, Ganju N, Asotra S. Cardiac biomarker-based risk stratification algorithm in patients with severe COVID-19. Diabetes Metab Syndr. (2020) 14:929–31. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2020.06027 44. Henry BM, de Oliveira M, Benoit S, Plebani M, Lippi G. Hematologic, biochemical and immune biomarker abnormalities associated with severe illness and mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a meta-analysis. Clin Chem Lab Med. (2020) 58:1021–8. doi: 10.1515/cclm-2020-0369 45. Aziz M, Fatima R, Lee-Smith W, Assaly R. The association of low serum albumin level with severe COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care. (2020) 24:255. doi: 10.1186/s13054-020-02995-3 46. Terpos E, Ntanasis-Stathopoulos I, Elalamy I, Kastritis E, Sergentanis TN, Politou M, et al. Hematological findings and complications of COVID-19. Amer J Hematol. (2020) 95:834–47. doi: 10.1002/ajh25829 47. Liu R, Ma Q, Han H, Su H, Liu F, Wu K, et al. The value of urine biochemical parameters in the prediction of the severity of coronavirus disease 2019. Clin Chem Lab Med. (2020) 58:1121–4. doi: 10.1515/cclm-2020-0220 48. D. Ferrari, A. Motta, M. Strollo, G. Banfi, M. Locatelli, Routine blood tests as a 49. potential diagnostic tool for COVID-19, Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. (2020) (Apr 16) 50. Ahead of print. 51. W.-J. Guan, Z.-Y. Ni, Y. Hu, W.-H. Liang, C.-Q. Ou, J.-X. He, et al., Clinical characteristics 52. of coronavirus disease 2019 in China, N. Engl. J. Med. 382 (18) (2020)1708–1720 (Feb 28). 53. Zheng Y, Zhang Y, Chi H, Chen S, Peng M, Luo L, et al. The hemocyte counts as a potential biomarker for predicting disease progression in COVID-19: a retrospective study. Clin Chem Lab Med. (2020) 58:1106–15. doi: 10.1515/cclm-2020-0377 54. Yan X, Li F, Wang X, Yan J, Zhu F, Tang S, et al. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio as prognostic and predictive factor in patients with coronavirus disease 2019: a retrospective cross-sectional study. J Med Virol. (2019) 92:2573–81. doi: 10.1002/jmv.26061 55. Ma A, Cheng J, Yang J, Dong M, Liao X, Kang Y. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio as a predictive biomarker for moderate-severe ARDS in severe COVID-19 patients. Crit Care. (2020) 24:288. doi: 10.1186/s13054-020-03007-0 56. Guan WJ, ZY Ni, Hu Y, Liang WH, Ou CQ, He JX, et al. China medical treatment expert group for Covid-19. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med. (2020) 382:1708–20. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2002032.
Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:

CAPTCHA


XML     Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Elahi A, Masoudi A, Hemmati H. Diagnostic and Prognostic Blood Biomarkers in COVID-19. Int J Med Invest. 2022; 11 (1) :9-18
URL: http://intjmi.com/article-1-762-en.html


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Volume 11, Issue 1 (3-2022) Back to browse issues page
International Journal of Medical Investigation
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.04 seconds with 29 queries by YEKTAWEB 4422